Drums of Defiance (1992) Maroon Music from the Earliest Free Black Communities of Jamaica

    Smithsonian Folkways
    • Jawbone – Morning Star
    • 1. Tambu – Hear when de dupy bowl
    • 2. Tambu – Fire da bun
    • 3. Sa leone – Remember Rain, John Warren
    • 4. Sa Leone – Moko Johnny
    • 5. Jawbone – Morning Star
    • 6. Jawbone – See dem gyal a molain
    • 7. Jawbone – Me asks me dasha, weh him min go
    • 8. Jawbone – Nyam one day, bui sanga
    • 9. Mandinga/John Thomas – Kin an Beri
    • 10. Mandinga – Banda Gone a Wood
    • 11. Mandinga/Tambu – Ya ya dempo
    • 12. Mandinga – Wiri-oo Sankoma
    • 13. Papa – Maki Bo
    • 14. Ibo – Jo Leh
    • 15. Ibo – Siyumande
    • 16. Abeng (Signalling Horn)
    • 17. Drum Language 0:26
    • 18. Drum Language 1:04
    • 19. Kromani (Country) – Shedo
    • 20. Nyabinghi
    • 21. Recreational Song – Falla Me
    • 22. Kromanti – Dele Bi Ankama
    • 23. Mandinga – Ba Wiri-Oo
    • 24. Mandinga – Duppy
    • 25. Mandinga – Siyumande Yoyo
    • 26. Kromanti – Grandy Nanny
    • 27. Kromanti – A Mini Wai-oo
    • 28. Solo Song – Ingia Mayongo
    • 29. Proscessional Music – Squire Music
    • 30. Proscessional Music – Clear Road
    • 31. Proscessional Music – Wah Me Gwine Do
    • 32. Proscessional Music – Maroon Law
    • 33. Proscessional Music – Baakini
    • 34. Revival – Fight for war
    • 35. Nyabingi – Medley

    Maroon communities in Jamaica are directly descended from escaped slaves brought over to Jamaica by the slave trade. Fiercely independent, these communities are a source of inspiration and the music is truly 'roots' with strong links to the music of Africa. Recommended CD with excellent sleevenotes. 35 tracks (20 listed).

    Featuring complex, West African influenced drumming and dancing, this little-known rural tradition is at the heart of modern, politically charged reggae music. The conviction heard here reveals a long history of struggle. During the 17th and 18th centuries, some of the Africans brought to Jamaica as slaves escaped to the mountains. There they settled, and over time, they became known as "Maroons." Today, four major Maroon colonies still exist in Jamaica's rugged western Cockpit Country and in the eastern Blue Mountains.

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